Community Outreach Flood Information
Dear Lewis County Resident:
This letter is being sent to you for informational purposes only because our records show that your property is very likely located in the floodplain. The County is working on ways to improve and increase its circulation of and accessibility to information that pertains to the floodplain, in an effort to better educate and assist its citizens about developing and living in the floodplain. Please take the time to read the information below, and if you have further questions, or would like additional information, a variety of contact information has been supplied at the end of this document.
Lewis County features several large rivers and smaller tributaries, or streams that are susceptible to annual flooding events that pose threats to life and safety and cause significant property damage. Large rivers include the Chehalis, Cowlitz, Newaukum, Skookumchuck, Nisqually, Tilton and all the feeder creeks that form the 2960 square miles of drainage system. Excluding the Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens water shed, Lewis County has close to 20,000 acres of floodplain and nearly 10,000 individual parcels that are partially or entirely located within the floodplain. Snow melt from the Cascade Mountain range contributes substantially to flooding.
Recent Flooding Events
While some sort of seasonal flood-related damage occurs nearly every year, the flooding and associated landslide events of December 2007 represent the most recent significant flooding. On Monday, December 3, 2007, record rainfall resulted from three Pacific Coast storms that slammed across much of Western Washington. Approximately 14”-20” of rainfall from the “super storm” fell in the Willapa Hills, causing widespread record flash flooding through Pe Ell, Doty, Adna and finally to the cities of Chehalis and Centralia. In the first few days following the flooding, preliminary damage reports totaled $166.1 million. One year later these figures were revised to indicate $512 million in damages and lost revenue to the region.
The East Lewis County historical flood event occurred November 6-10, 2006 with flooding from the Cowlitz River. Five low pressure systems occurred in the first few days of November that brought record rainfall across Washington that exceeded the monthly rainfall averages for the entire month of November. When a rain front stall over the mountains, the Cowlitz River water races off Mt. Rainier and the surrounding hills very quickly and engulfs the downstream communities. That’s what happened in early November 2006 when the worst flooding ever to hit the communities of Packwood and Randle exploded through the area with a fury that destroyed a bridge, pulled homes into the seething river, destroyed at least one protective dike and caused two deaths. Preliminary Residential-Business and public infrastructure damages were reported at $26.7 million. The Lewis County Risk Management Office estimated that the floods of November 2006 and December 2007 affected 2800 owners & renters of the County’s 77,000 residents. Claims filed under the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)’s National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) from Lewis County residences and businesses accounted for almost 25% of the entire claims throughout the state in 2007.
County records dating back to the mid-1800s indicate that the river has caused significant flooding to the County at least seven times, while flooding from the river has dramatically affected the County at least five times. County records report that in 1933 Chehalis River floodwaters inundated the streets of Chehalis and Centralia with about 2 + feet of water, and while the 1996 events were devastating to the entire region, the floods of 1933, 1986, and 1996 were exceeded by the 2007 events in terms of velocity and volume of water. All four floods have been estimated to exceed the so-called “100-year flood,” or Base Flood, and all within a time frame of about 130 years.
Causes of Flooding in Lewis County
Flooding occurs when climate (or weather patterns), geology, and hydrology combine to create conditions where river and stream waters flow outside of their usual course and “overspill” beyond their banks. In Lewis County, the combination of these factors, create chronic seasonal flooding conditions. Lewis County spans a wide range of climatic and geologic regions that results in considerable variation in precipitation, the primary factor of which is elevation. Moving east from sea level to Willapa Foothills, Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens at 7,000 feet above sea level, annual precipitation averages range from 47.06 inches to over 124.51 inches, respectively. Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helen’s snowmelt provides a continuous water source throughout the year, and can contribute significantly to the development of flooding.
Flooding is most common from October through April, when storms from the Pacific Ocean, 60 miles away, bring intense rainfall to the area. Lewis County receives approximately 46.05 inches of rain on average each year. Larger floods result from heavy rains that continue over the course of several days, augmented by snowmelt at a time when the soil is near saturation from previous rains. Frozen topsoil also contributes to the frequency of floods. Riverine flooding and urban flooding are the two types of flooding that primarily affect Lewis County. Riverine flooding is the overbank flooding of rivers and streams, the natural processes of which add sediment and nutrients to fertile floodplain areas. Urban flooding results from the conversion of land from fields or woodlands to parking lots and roads, through which the land loses its ability to absorb rainfall.
Lewis County participates in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that makes available federally backed flood insurance for all structures, whether or not they are located within the floodplain. More than 25 percent of NFIP claims are filed by properties located outside the 100-year floodplain, also known as the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Please keep in mind that home owners insurance excludes flood insurance and it must be acquired separately. Following the purchase of flood insurance, NFIP imposes a 30-day waiting period, so residents should purchase insurance before the onset of the rainy season to ensure coverage during the flooding season.
Membership within NFIP — and the availability to County residents of flood insurance — requires the County to manage its floodplain in ways that meet or exceed standards set by FEMA. NFIP insures building with two types of coverage: structural and contents. Structural coverage includes walls, floors, insulation, furnace and other items permanently attached to the structure. Contents coverage may be purchased separately to cover the contents of an insurable building. Flood insurance also pays a portion of the costs of actions taken to prevent flood damage.
Since December 15, 1981, all NFIP policies include Increased Cost of Compliance coverage if your structure is substantially damaged or requires substantial improvement that exceeds 50% of the value of the structure it, triggers the standards that assist the owner with bringing structures into compliance with current building standards, such as elevating structures 1 foot or more above the height of the 100-year flood. The limit of this coverage is $30,000.
Federal financial assistance requires the purchase of flood insurance for buildings located within the SFHA — a requirement that affects nearly all mortgages financed through commercial lending institutions. This mandatory requirement stipulates that structural coverage be purchased equal to the amount of the loan, or other financial assistance, or for the maximum amount available, which is currently $250,000 for a single family residence. While the mandatory flood insurance purchase requirement has been in effect for many years, not all lending institutions required flood insurance in the past. Today, however, most institutions are now requiring the flood insurance purchase, and some are reviewing all mortgage loans to determine whether flood insurance is required and should have been required in the past. Upon refinancing a loan, nearly all lending institutions will enforce the flood insurance requirement. It is the lender’s responsibility to check the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) to determine whether a structure is within the SFHA.
The mandatory flood insurance purchase requirement does not apply to loans or financial assistance for items that are not eligible for flood insurance coverage, such as vehicles, business expenses, landscaping and vacant lots. The requirement also does not apply to loans for structures not located in a SFHA, even though a portion of the lot may be within a SFHA. Persons located within SFHAs who received disaster assistance after February 1996 for flood losses to real or personal property must purchase and maintain flood insurance coverage, otherwise future disaster assistance will be denied.
Floodplain Understanding and Regulation
Maintaining the flow capacity in streams that cross County properties requires cooperation and assistance to prevent flooding and bank erosion. Following are some suggestions and information for understanding the ways that floodplains function and how the County regulates the floodplain in order to protect property and lives, while affording County citizens the ability to obtain floodplain insurance.
Do not dump or throw anything into ditches or streams: A plugged channel cannot carry water, and when it rains, the excess water must go somewhere. Trash and vegetation dumped into a stream degrades water quality of both the stream itself and its receiving waters, and every piece of trash contributes to flooding. All three surface water management agencies that serve the urban areas of the County have adopted and enforce regulations that prohibit the dumping of material into any natural or manmade component of the drainage system. Additionally, the County as a whole has adopted and enforces regulations that prohibit the illegal dumping of material, including material dumped into ditches, streams or other drainage ways. Please report any observations of the dumping of debris or other objects into streams, drainage ways, or rivers to the Lewis County Code Enforcement Department at (360) 740-2718.
Remove debris, trash, loose branches and vegetation: Keep banks clear of brush and debris to help maintain an unobstructed flow of water in stream channels. Do not, however, remove vegetation that is actively growing on a stream bank. Streamside vegetation is tightly regulated by local, state and federal regulations. Before undertaking any removal of streamside vegetation, contact the Lewis County Planning Department at (360) 740-1146 and the Division of State Lands. Please report any observations of the clearing of vegetation or trees on stream banks to the Lewis County Code Enforcement Department at (360) 740-2718.
Obtain a floodplain development permit and / or building permit, if required: To minimize damage to structures during flood events, the County requires all new construction in the floodplain to be anchored against movement by floodwaters, resistant to flood forces, constructed with flood-resistant materials and flood-proofed or elevated so that the first floor of living space, as well as all mechanical and services, is at least 1 foot above the elevation of the 100-year flood. These standards apply to new structures and to substantial improvements of existing structures. The County defines a Substantial Improvement as any reconstruction, rehabilitation, or addition to an existing structure, the cost of which exceeds 50 percent of the structure’s appraised or market value (whichever the builder chooses to use). Additionally, most other types of development within the floodplain also require a floodplain development permit, such as grading, cut and fill, installation of riprap and other bank stabilization techniques. County staff are available to undertake site visits, if requested, to review flood, drainage and sewer issues. Contact the Lewis County Planning Department at (360) 740-1146 for further information and prior to undertaking any activity within the floodplain.
Recognize the natural and beneficial functions of floodplains to help reduce flooding: Floodplains are a natural component of the Lewis County environment, understanding and protecting the natural functions of floodplains helps reduce flood damage and protect natural resources. When flooding spreads out across the floodplain, its energy is dissipated, which results in lower flood flows downstream, reduced erosion of the stream bank and channel, deposition of sediments higher in the watershed and improved groundwater recharge. Floodplains are scenic, valued wildlife habitat, and suitable for farming. Poorly planned development in floodplains can lead to stream bank erosion, loss of valuable property, increased risk of flooding to downstream properties and degradation of water quality.
Reduce risk of damage to homes: Practical and cost-effective methods for reducing or eliminating the risk of flooding are available to property owners whose homes have experienced damage from flooding in the past, or may experience damage in the future. Such techniques include elevation of the home, relocating the home to higher ground, constructing floodwalls or berms, flood-proofing and protecting utilities. For further information, contact the Lewis County Planning Department at (360) 740-1146 or and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Region X at (425) 487-4600. During times of flooding, homes that have not been retrofitted can be protected during emergencies by the installation of sandbags. Sandbags and sand are available from local distributors year round.
County Floodplain Information Services: The County can determine the relationship of a particular property to the floodplain, including: 1) whether the property is located within the Special Flood Hazard Area; 2) Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) Zone for property; 3) Base Flood Elevation for property, if available; and 4) whether the property is located within the Floodway. Contact the Lewis County Building Department at (360) 740-1146 for further information.
Flood Safety Tips
The County’s Emergency Management Department has flood warning information available that can be accessed by calling them at (360) 740-1151, or through their Web site at: http://lewiscountywa.gov/. The Web site includes information about sandbag locations and ways to contact and listen to the National Weather Service. The County has also collaborated with the Washington State and the National Weather Service to install the first Doppler Radar System the will allow better predictability and provide an enhanced early warning system to the entire coastal areas of southwest Washington. Weather updates may now take place within hours and provide greater detail on storms and their path. It also has an informational brochure that explains how people can prepare for an emergency. Additionally, the County Public Works Department website features road conditions, closures and hazards at http://roads.lewiscountywa.gov; Or call (360) 740-1146.
Following is a list of important considerations that should be followed during times of flooding:
Prepare an evacuation plan: Before the floodwaters hit, develop an evacuation plan among all members of a household that includes a meeting place outside of the house, as well as an escape route out of the floodplain and away from floodwaters.
Do not walk through flowing water: Drowning is the number one cause of flood deaths, mostly during flash floods. Currents can be deceptive; six inches of moving water can knock you off your feet. If you walk in standing water, use a pole or stick to ensure that the ground is still there.
Do not drive through a flooded area: More people drown in their cars than anywhere else. Don’t drive around road barriers; the road or bridge may be washed out.
Stay away from power lines and electrical wires: The number two flood killer after drowning is electrocution. Electrical current can travel through water. Report downed power lines to the Bonneville Power Administration or the County Emergency Management Office.
Shut off gas and electricity and move valuable contents upstairs: Be prepared in advance with a detailed checklist because warning of an impending flood may provide little time for preparation prior to evacuation. Look out for animals, especially snakes: Small animals that have been flooded out of their homes may seek shelter in yours. Use a pole or stick to poke and turn things over and scare away small animals.
Look before you step: After a flood, the ground and floors are covered with debris including broken bottles and nails. Floors and stairs that have been covered with mud can be very slippery.
Be alert for gas leaks: Use a flashlight to inspect for damage. Don’t smoke or use candles, lanterns or open flames unless you know that the gas has been turned off and the area has been ventilated.
Important Contact Information
- Lewis County Washington: http://lewiscountywa.gov
- Lewis County Internet Floodplain Information: http://lewiscountywa.gov/em/flood-information
- EMA Preliminary Maps:
- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Phone: (800) 621-FEMA (3362)
- Lewis County Building and Planning Division
Phone: (360) 740-1146
- Lewis County Code Enforcement
Phone: (360) 740-2718
- Lewis County Department of Water Environment Services (WES)
Phone: (360) 740-2691
- Lewis County Department of Emergency Management
Phone: (360) 740-1151
- Timberland Regional Library (Houses floodplain publications and other floodplain information)
Phone: (800) 562-6022
- Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
Phone: (800) 527-3305
- Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)
Phone: (360) 696-6211
- National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
Phone: (206) 526-6150
Web: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ (and) http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/
- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Phone: (503) 808-4510